Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 2012 Volume 77, Issue 5, Pages: 651-665
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Effect of electrolysis parameters on the morphologies of copper powder obtained at high current densities

Orhan Gökhan, Gezgin Güzey Gizem

The effects of copper ion concentrations and electrolyte temperature on the morphologies and on the apparent densities of electrolytic copper powders at high current densities under galvanostatic regime were examined. These parameters were evaluated by the current efficiency of hydrogen evolution. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used for analyzing the morphology of the copper powders. It was found that the morphology was dependent over the copper ion concentration and electrolyte temperature under same current density (CD) conditions. At 150 mA cm-2 and the potential of 1000±20 mV (vs. SCE), porous and disperse copper powders were obtained at low concentrations of Cu ions (0.120 M Cu2+ in 0.50 M H2SO4). Under this condition, high rate of hydrogen evolution reaction took place parallel to copper electrodeposition. The morphology was changed from porous, disperse and cauliflower-like to coral-like, shrub-like and stalk-stock like morphology with the increasing of Cu ion concentrations towards 0.120 M, 0.155 M, 0.315 M, 0.475 M and 0.630 M Cu2+ in 0.5 M H2SO4 respectively at the same CD. Similarly, as the temperature was increased, powder morphology and apparent density were observed to be changed. The apparent density values of copper powders were found to be suitable for many of the powder metallurgy applications.