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Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 2010 Volume 75, Issue 10, Pages: 1361-1368
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Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L.

Hassanpouraghdam M.B., Gohari G.R., Tabatabaei S.J., Dadpour M.R.

In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 % and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves) were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 % vs. 19.4 %) and monoterpenes (27.7 % vs. 22.1 %). Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 % vs. 18.9 %) were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 % vs. 15.9 %) possessed the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds as well. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 % vs. 56.7 %) was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 % and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 % vs. 13.1 %) was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 % vs. 3 %), germacrene D (6.1 % vs. 2.7 %) and 1,8-cineole (2.4 % vs. 3.5 %). There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Keywords: Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae, essential oil, hydroponic, methyl chavicol, linalool