Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 2011 Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages: 741-750
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Most frequent deviations from the principles of prevention against coccidiosis in poultry

Kapetanov M., Stojanov I., Živkov-Baloš M.

The coccidiosis is the most remarkable widespread parasitic poultry disease. Due to its clinical or subclinical course which is even more significant, high economical losses are evident. The health and the economical implications of coccidiosis are emphasized in intensive poultry farming. In this paper investigation was performed on the most frequent deviations in application of preventive means against the coccidiosis. The data were analyzed during the period from the year 2005 to 2010. In order to locate possible factors that could contribute to the decreased prophylactic effects of anticoccidials, the flocks of broiler chickens, laying hens and parents were clinically examined and critical steps in farming technology were evaluated in detail. The type of equipment and its performance, and the duration of empty resting period between flocks were noted as the predominant technical determinants. Also some oversights were found in the design of programs for the control of coccidiosis, including the previously used coccidiostats and their efficacy in chicken flocks, the availability of drugs on market and the important elements of epizootiology of the disease. By permanent hygiene practice on poultry farms the infectious pressure may decrease. Anticoccidial drugs are mostly applied and are considered very efficient. However, since coccidia can acquire resistance to antibiotics and residual coccidiostats in consumer meat are found occasionally, their prophylactic use may be limited. The immunoprophylaxis is the most promising method so far. The use of anticoccidial vaccines in poultry stimulates its own immunological capacities and moreover, it enables the production of safe food and products. In recent years there is an increasing interest for the immunoprophylaxis in our country. In our region, the vaccination against coccidiosis is performed in about 90% of parent flocks and in 10 to 20% of commercial layers. However, development of the immune response against coccidia is complex and immune suppression can occur by different factors such as stress inducing conditions, bacterial (salmonella) and viral (Reo, IBDV, MDV, CAV) infections, aflatoxicosis and other. The noted deviations in preventive measures applied to combat coccidiosis were clearly defined. The obligative introduction of HACCP in intensive poultry production implicate planned solutions for the control of coccidiosis.

Keywords: coccidiosis, chemoprophylaxis, hygiene, vaccination

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