Vojnosanitetski pregled 2009 Volume 66, Issue 9, Pages: 733-737
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Association of fetal unilateral multicystic kidney disease with other urinary tract anomalies

Pop-Trajković Sonja, Ljubić Aleksandar, Antić Vladimir, Trenkić Milan

Background/Aim. Multicystic dysplastic kidney represents a disorder in the fetus development presented prenatally of postnatally, this deserving special attention due to a risk of additional anomalies in children with this disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and type of common anomalies of the urinary system in the prenatal diagnosis of unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney, and point out the necessity of postnatal diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate the state of the urinary system. Methods. This retrospective-prospective study encompassed 38 cases of prenatally diagnosed unilateral fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney, presented to the Council for Fetal Anomalies from the Institute for Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Clinical Centre of Serbia and the University Children's Clinic within a three-year period. Associated anomalies were revealed by autopsy findings when pregnancy was terminated, ie resumed with clinical and operative findings of born children. Results. In every case of terminated pregnancy and death after birth the autopsy revealed additional renal or exstrarenal anomaly which were not prenatally detected. Postnatal evaluation of survived children with unilateral multicistic disease revealed that 31,4% of them have an anomaly of the contralateral kidney, 26,3% anomaly of the ipsilateral side, 13,2% anomaly of the lower portions of the urinary system and the same percent an additional extrarenal anomaly. The surgery was performed in 73,6% of children, more than half of the interventions were related to extrarenal anomaly. In 17% of children the kidney function was deteriorated after surgery. Conclusion. Children suffering from unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney have a greater chance of exhibiting an anomaly of the contralateral kidney and the urinary system in general. Therefore, they require thorough examination, both prenatally and postnatally. We propose obligatory serial professional prenatal ultrasound examinations, followed by postnatal ultrasound, isotope scan, and we especially emphasize the need for performing urinary cystouretherography, bearing in mind the high incidence of the vesicoureteral reflux of the contralateral kidney. In addition to nephrectomy, cytoscopy and colposcopy also need to be performed for the purpose of discovering possible hidden anomalies of the urogenital system.

Keywords: multicystic dysplastic kidney, prenatal diagnosis, fetus, urogenital abnormalities, risk assessment, vesicoureteral reflux

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