Vojnosanitetski pregled 2011 Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages: 81-84
doi:10.2298/VSP1101081P
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Epileptic seizure as the first sign of hypoparathyroidism

Pešić Milica, Radojković Danijela, Radenković Saša, Spasić Mirjana, Lukić Stevo

Background. Hypoparathyroidism refers to a group of disorders in which extracellular calcium levels cannot be maintained within the normal range due to relative or absolute deficiency of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The clinical features of hypoparathyroidism are consistent with hypocalcaemia and, predominantly, neuromuscular dysfunction. Although hypocalcaemia-induced seizures are well documented hypoparathyroidism-induced epilepsy is often misdiagnosed as idiopathic epilepsy. Case report. We reported a 57-year-old woman with new-onset seizure due to hypoparathyroidism. At first, diagnosis of epilepsy was established and the antiepileptic therapy was initiated with gradual increase of the dose. Computerized tomography scan of the head revealed bilateral basal ganglia and cerebellar calcification and many punctiform calcifications between cortical and subcortical parts. During hospitalization, laboratory tests showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and low PTH level. Once the diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism was established, a proper treatment with calcium and vitamin D was started, and the patient was discharged from hospital with full seizure control. Conclusion. Standard evaluation of serum calcium levels in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures should be obligatory part of a diagnostic algoritam to avoid misdiagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy.

Keywords: hypoparathyroidism, epilepsy, calcium metabolism disorders, diagnosis, differential

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