TY - JOUR TI - Functional electrical stimulation with surface electrodes AU - Bajd Tadej AU - Črt Marinček AU - Munih Marko JN - Journal of Automatic Control PY - 2008 VL - 18 IS - 2 SP - 3 EP - 9 PT- Article AB- The review investigates the objective evidences of benefits derived from surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) of lower and upper extremities for people after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. FES can offer noticeable benefits in walking ability. It can be efficiently combined with treadmill and body weight support. Voluntary muscle strength and endurance gain can be achieved through FES assisted gait training together with increased gait velocity in absence of electrical stimulator. Cyclic FES, FES augmented by biofeedback, and FES used in various daily activities can result in substantial improvements of the voluntary control of upper extremities.